Seizure States Identification in Experimental Epilepsy using Gabor Atom Analysis

Published in Journal Articles



Epileptic seizures evolve through several states, and in the process the brain signals may change dramatically. Signals from different states share similar features, making it difficult to distinguish them from a time series; the goal of this work is to build a classifier capable of identifying seizure states based on time–frequency features taken from short signal segments.


There are different amounts of frequency components within each Time–Frequency window for each seizure state, referred to as the Gabor atom density. Taking short signal segments from the different states and decomposing them into their atoms, the present paper suggests that is possible to identify each seizure state based on the Gabor atom density. The brain signals used in this work were taken form a database of intracranial recorded seizures from the Kindling model.


The findings suggest that short signal segments have enough information to be used to derive a classifier able to identify the seizure states with reasonable confidence, particularly when used with seizures from the same subject. Achieving average sensitivity values between 0.82 and 0.97, and area under the curve values between 0.5 and 0.9.


The experimental results suggest that seizure states can be revealed by the Gabor atom density; and combining this feature with the epoch's energy produces an improved classifier. These results are comparable with the recently published on state identification. In addition, considering that the order of seizure states is unlikely to change, these results are promising for automatic seizure state classification.

  1. Arturo Sotelo, Enrique D Guijarro and Leonardo Trujillo. Seizure states identification in experimental epilepsy using gabor atom analysis. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 241(Complete):121-131, 2015. DOI BibTeX

    	affiliation = "Instituto Tecnolgico de Tijuana, Blvd. Industrial S/N, Tijuana, BC, Mexico; Universitat Politcnica de Valncia, Cami de Vera S/N, 46022 Valencia, Spain",
    	author = "Sotelo, Arturo and Guijarro, Enrique D. and Trujillo, Leonardo",
    	doi = "10.1016/j.jneumeth.2014.12.001",
    	journal = "Journal of Neuroscience Methods",
    	keywords = "Epilepsy; Seizure states; ECoG; Kindling model; Matching pursuit; Gabor atoms density",
    	language = "eng",
    	number = "Complete",
    	pages = "121-131",
    	title = "Seizure states identification in experimental epilepsy using gabor atom analysis",
    	volume = 241,
    	year = 2015

Identification of epilepsy stages from ECoG using genetic programming classifiers

Published in Journal Articles


Objective: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder, for which a great deal of research has been devoted to analyze and characterize brain activity during seizures. While this can be done by a human expert, automatic methods still lag behind. This paper analyzes neural activity captured with Electrocorticogram (ECoG), recorded through intracranial implants from Kindling model test subjects. The goal is to automatically identify the main seizure stages: Pre-Ictal, Ictal and Post-Ictal. While visually differentiating each stage can be done by an expert if the complete time-series is available, the goal here is to automatically identify the corresponding stage of short signal segments.

Methods and materials: The proposal is to pose the above task as a supervised classification problem and derive a mapping function that classifies each signal segment. Given the complexity of the signal patterns, it is difficult to a priori choose any particular classifier. Therefore, Genetic Programming (GP), a population based meta-heuristic for automatic program induction, is used to automatically search for the mapping functions. Two GP-based classifiers are used and extensively evaluated. The signals from epileptic seizures are obtained using the Kindling model of elicited epilepsy in rodent test subjects, for which a seizure was elicited and recorded on four separate days.

Results: Results show that signal segments from a single seizure can be used to derive accurate classifiers that generalize when tested on different signals from the same subject; i.e., GP can automatically produce accurate mapping functions for intra-subject classification. A large number of experiments are performed with the GP classifiers achieving good performance based on standard performance metrics. Moreover, a proof-of-concept real-world prototype is presented, where a GP classifier is transferred and hard-coded on an embedded system using a digital-to-analogue converter and a field programmable gate array, achieving a low average classification error of 14.55%, sensitivity values between 0.65 and 0.97, and specificity values between 0.86 and 0.94.

Conclusions: The proposed approach achieves good results for stage identification, particularly when compared with previous works that focus on this task. The results show that the problem of intra-class classification can be solved with a low error, and high sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, the limitations of the approach are identified and good operating configurations can be proposed based on the results.

  1. Arturo Sotelo, Enrique Guijarro, Leonardo Trujillo, Luis N Coria and Yuliana Martínez. Identification of epilepsy stages from ECoG using genetic programming classifiers. Computers in Biology and Medicine 43(11):1713 - 1723, 2013. URL, DOI BibTeX

    	title = "Identification of epilepsy stages from \{ECoG\} using genetic programming classifiers",
    	journal = "Computers in Biology and Medicine",
    	volume = 43,
    	number = 11,
    	pages = "1713 - 1723",
    	year = 2013,
    	doi = "",
    	url = "",
    	author = "Arturo Sotelo and Enrique Guijarro and Leonardo Trujillo and Luis N. Coria and Yuliana Mart\'{i}nez"
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